Logging enumerator behavior

Collect can log the behavior of enumerators as they navigate through a form. This log has many uses including discovering:

  • questions that take a long time to answer
  • how enumerators typically navigate through a form
  • enumerators who take a particularly long or short time to answer
  • if enumerators were at the correct location when filling out a form

This information can inform form design and training.

Aggregate 1.5.0+ required

If a version of Aggregate lower than 1.5.0 is used, audit files will not be saved on the server.

Enabling audit logging

To enable logging for a form, add a row of type audit and name audit in an XLSForm:

type name
audit audit

A form may contain at most one row of type audit.

Location tracking

You may add the location of events to the log. To do this, add the following parameters to the XLSForm. All three parameters are required.


high-accuracy: The most accurate location provided by the device, regardless of power use.

balanced: Block level accuracy (~100 meters). Uses less power than high-accuracy.

low-power: City level accuracy (~10 kilometers). Uses less power than balanced.

no-power: No locations will be returned unless another application on the device has requested location updates. Uses no additional power.

The desired minimum time, in seconds, at which location updates will be fetched by the device.
The maximum time, in seconds, locations will be considered valid by the device. Must be greater than or equal to location-min-interval.
type name parameters
audit audit location-priority=balanced location-min-interval=60 location-max-age=120

When location tracking is enabled, ODK Collect requests location updates from Android periodically, with an interval determined by location-min-interval. The requests are sent with location-priority to ensure Android does not use more power than is desired.

When Collect receives the location updates, it stores the locations in a timestamped cache. At the time of an event, Collect checks the cache for locations stored over the last location-max-age and returns the most accurate location in the cache.

For the most accurate locations, set location-priority to high-accuracy. For the most recent locations, use low numbers for location-min-interval and location-max-age.


Location tracking can be an invasion of privacy. Users of ODK Collect will be informed that their location is being tracked when they open a form with this feature enabled.

Users can control their privacy by disabling location providers in Android, refusing to grant Collect location permissions, or by disabling location tracking of specific forms in Collect.

Disabling location tracking will not prevent users from filling out forms, but these changes are logged as events in the log.

Change tracking

You can enable change tracking so that old answers and new answers will be added to the question events. To do this, add the following parameter to the XLSForm: track-changes=true.

type name parameters
audit audit track-changes=true

Viewing audit logs

Audit logs can be reviewed in Aggregate and downloaded for further analysis using Briefcase.

In Aggregate 1.5.0+, audit logs can be viewed by clicking on the media icon in the meta audit column on the Submissions page:

The Aggregate submissions page with a form that has an audit log. The media icon in the meta audit column is circled.

This displays a popup with the audit contents:

An example audit log in Aggregate.


Aggregate currently does not display locations in the audit popup. To view locations or to perform more sophisticated analysis, logs can be downloaded along with their submissions using Briefcase.

Log structure

If a form includes an audit, Collect will create an audit.csv file as the form is filled out. The audit.csv file has the following structure:

event node start end
question /data/name 1523403169208 1523403170733

Values in the event column represent a particular user action such as opening a form, saving a form, or displaying a question. Possible event types are described in the Event types section.

Values in the node column represent the node in the form that the event refers to, if applicable.

Values in the start and end columns are timestamps represented as the number of milliseconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC. This is known as epoch time and provides a standard way of representing date/time even across timezones. The Timestamps section contains more information about timestamps.

If both location tracking and change tracking are enabled in the log, the CSV will look like this:

event node start end latitude longitude accuracy old-value new-value
form start   1550615022663            
location tracking enabled   1550615022671            
question /data/name 1550615022682 1550615097082 37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477   John
location permissions granted   1550615068610            
location providers enabled   1550615068665            
location tracking disabled   1550615095914   37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
question /data/age 1550615097082 1550615097655 37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477   20
question /data/name 1550615097656 1550615102351 37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477 John John Smith
location tracking enabled   1550615099271   37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
question /data/age 1550615102351 1550615107630 37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
end screen   1550615107631 1550615109199 37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
form save   1550615109199   37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
form exit   1550615109199   37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    
form finalize   1550615109199   37.4229983 -122.084 14.086999893188477    

Values in the latitude and longitude columns represent the latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. Values in the accuracy column represents accuracy in seconds.


Locations will often be repeated in the log. This is because locations are not captured at the time of the event, but rather retrieved from a cache of the most accurate points captured over the last location-max-age.


Answers will be recorded only if they differ (if the new answer is different than the old one), otherwise, cells should be empty. Answers which contain commas will be surrounded by double quotes.

Event types

The event column of the audit log can have the following values:

Event Description Node? Timestamps? Coordinates? Answers?
form start Start filling in the form No start only If enabled and available No
question View a question Yes Yes If enabled and available If enabled
group questions View multiple questions on one screen (field-list) Yes Yes If enabled and available No
jump View the jump screen No start only If enabled and available No
add repeat Add a repeat Yes Yes If enabled and available No
delete repeat Delete a repeat Yes Yes If enabled and available No
end screen View the end screen No Yes If enabled and available No
form save Save the form No start only If enabled and available No
form exit Exit the form No start only If enabled and available No
form resume Resume the form No start only If enabled and available No
form finalize Finalize the form No start only If enabled and available No
save error Error trying to save No start only If enabled and available No
finalize error Error trying to finalize the form (probably encryption related) No start only If enabled and available No
constraint error Constraint or required error on finalize No start only If enabled and available No
location tracking enabled/disabled Toggle location tracking in Collect No Yes If enabled and available No
location providers enabled/disabled Toggle location providers in Android No Yes If enabled and available No
location permissions granted/not granted Toggle location permission in Android No Yes If enabled and available No


If we relied entirely on the time reported by the device for timestamps, users or the network could change the device time and manipulate the correctness of the audit log. For this reason, we only use device time for the form start timestamp. All subsequent event timestamps are the result of elapsed time, which users cannot change, added to the form start timestamp. This means that while the timestamps themselves may potentially be inaccurate, the time elapsed within and between the timestamps are always accurate within one form editing session.

Using epoch time makes it easy to compute elapsed time by subtracting start from end. For example, given the following log:

event node start end
form start   1488761807863  
question /data/name 1488761807868 1488761809157

The enumerator spent 1488761809157 - 1488761807868 = 1289 milliseconds on the screen showing the /data/name question. This corresponds to 1289 / 1000 = 1.289 seconds.

To convert from epoch time to time in UTC in most common spreadsheet programs, divide the epoch time by 86400000 ms per day and add 25569 days between January 1, 1900 (what spreadsheet programs use as "day zero") and January 1, 1970. For example, to convert the timestamp 1488761807868:

(1488761807868 / 86400000) + 25569 = 42800.03944

When the cell is set to type date time in common spreadsheet programs, it will show 3/6/2017 0:56:48 UTC. A common workflow if device time is needed in a human-readable format will be to add a column for the calculation above and change that column's type to date time.

Known limitations

If the device is turned off while a form is being filled, Collect will not record a log entry for the screen that was shown at the time of device shutdown. Events before and after the shutdown will be logged.